PHIL 103 E, Monday, 10-23-17

Mill, "On Liberty", Chp. 1

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Transcript

Philosophy 103G G Monday, October 23, 2017 today Ms. Stewart thank you we’re continuing our discussion chapter 1 of Wednesday we’ll we’ll we’ll move on to chapter 2 which is about the Liberty of four and discussion when you read chapter 2 if you haven’t already you should give some thought to the fact that he says thought and discussion wise and adjust liberty thought for today talking about the introductory chapter which we talk about it and I want to begin by drawing your attention to something that he says on page 10 this is a 14 page chapter those of you they have a different addition from this one can find either now or later wish can find what I’m bout to it as the 11th paragraphWill probably be the same in all addition we don’t have Stefan’s numbers as weekend for Plato to help identify the patient matter what conditioning parts of the pages well when is 11 paragraph I picked it for couple of reasons to start with but one of the reasons is that it refers to something that many of my students to whether you’re inclined to do this or not many students tell me that they said if somebody interferes with their liberty I Don’t have a right to do so and without necessarily any clearer idea about where people get their rights or don’t get them but it just seems wrong to them and maybe sometimes they can get an explanation why Strong but what Neil says here is that he’s not going to appeal to what he calls abstract right let me redub this first sentence paragraph it it is proper to stay that I forego any advantage which could be derived to my argument from the idea of abstract right I Do not appeal to rights but notice how the sentence in he four goes any advantage from abstract right as a fitting independent of utility so what is he going to site to hit as advantage to his argument not abstract right but what did you hear the alternative but you have it yeah but independent of birth refers to abstract right anything that is independent of this like abstract writing not going to appeal what he is going to appeal to their foreign single word miss Stewart utility he’s get a bases argument on utility so that means that we’re going understand what the basis of his argument is we have to understand what utility is visit before we discuss at work I just want you to know that the next sentence indicate the scope of what he means by utility but before we look at that let’s just talk about the word utility what meal is going to appeal to is the advantage of his argument so what is utility is there anybody here who pays the bills at home you pay utilities what util. what are the utilities you pay for Mr. Sometimes what your phone is the fountain visor for utility I’m announcing a reason why shouldn’t but usually you will use the word utilities in this context gas electricity water no why do we pay let’s take gas electricity because those are two forms of energy write what is it what are we due to gas we burn it right and why do we do that why regarding the gas find general those are things we can do it that yes and that is what I’m talking about that’s what it what it what is the burning process for example we’re driving a car why do we put gas in the car we can do that gas what what what do we do it now we drive the car real driving cast cities are reserved what are you doing for gas yeah then what do you doing you want what is that what’s happening when you start car yeah what’s happening what you do started see the problem with this is that you don’t know what you’re doing right when you press the button for example the honest answer movie I press the button and with the computer computers are very difficult two euros if you don’t know which button to press soon as you know which button to press is easy and people are very’s computer savvy they know hundreds of different combinations for depressed to get various things done so you press the button and something happens that you don’t know what when people use remotes now went when you use to use a key what would you do with the key it’s stick It in a key alright that’s good to keep it simple and then what would you do turn it was was a keyhole called what what might was locked in that you couldn’t turn it without a key ignition the ignition thing and the ignition are part of the electrical system right so although I car runs on gas it also depends on electricity right and so you get some electrical our to start burning the gas it’s a little bit like striking match putting in to say the electrical power generate spark in in the carburetor and that’s why sometimes you have to it works automatically now with was it new cars that used to be the added press accelerate or a little bit can little gas up and they’re in there to get ignited alright so that’s what we’re doing and we’re so were using gas we’re burning it and what it what is the burning of the gas to that’s followed by the way I’m the furthest thing from a mobile mechanic if you had trouble with your card on sale I know the fix of Prof. Robert if you saw them at ignition something that don’t want me I do your car that’s screwed up words by but this is pretty simple basic soft right so what is the burning of the gasfield what is it engine what what were the parts of the engine of the gas goes and starts in the gas tank that’s always Baptist that she feels at the gas tank but what is it what is the engine composer sometimes you got for somebody that six sometimes even eight cylinders yet and all the door cylinder indicates his age is a basic geometric three-dimensional form right circling out toll what happens in the cylinder what I wanted happens yeah that’s where we ignited right so what we created not just a fire exit explosion because it is very tight space and what does what does he what’s effective the explosion I know you can skip too many steps because if I did if I didn’t explosion outside of the car Friday night at some gas outside of the car would make the car move wouldn’t let is a real big explosion I did it right underneath it so what happens in the cylinder what is inside the cylinder beside the gas a piston and the gas moves the piston and what is the piston connected to nine may actually have to skip some steps but basically it’s connected to eight to a drive train to something that goes to the wheel so when the piston pops up or down that energy is transmitted to something else which makes this intern which makes the actual turning makes the wheels turn okay so just a simple sketch I’ll Something how wide call gas and utility this whole story explaining that not if you don’t know what the word utility needs well maybe even if you don’t suppose you didn’t have gas and It wouldn’t happen right and why are you getting in your car missed that these what you get in your car drive what can you give us an example of what you want to do that because if there’s nobody there is any my birthday appointed okay so if gas is the utilities and that whole process must have something to do with the idea of utility that is Cissé one burns gas in order to drive a car to go shopping or visit with a friend or something right another words it produces something good Lisa you consider good that’s what you doing so utilities are things to produce things are good Alex let’s Little closer to us and our language were used to using let’s think about tools supposed somebody was trying to put a screw in with a hammer and use on doing that and you said here try this and you give them a screwdriver so what would you say that that screwdriver is that the hammer is not in this situation another situation might be the hammer in this situation hammer is not useful so that’s a synonym Fort fort utility something that is useful for something else reduces something utility means by the way Mill and his father before him James male was also philosopher and what’s his name in English English not Eng philosopher as they McKenna Renaldo who was Bensalem Jeremy Bentham who is a friend of his father these and a few others were given given name as a group as a movement in philosophy and it name is also the name of one of Mills other books and other short book like this one called utilitarianism and basically what utilitarianism is is the idea that what is good in human life is what produces something that we desire in their we were guarding good for us so it’s what produces them and those things now why anybody whatever disagree with that you might not be able to imagine except if you remember Socrates you could say that he was not very utilitarian when he gave up escaping which would produce the good of life so his emphasis on goodness I Had less to do with what your action produces and more to do with see what goes on in your mind but back to Mill you remember I never referred to Plato again because it you can help us with milk as opposed to milk this is just when you wrote logs and essays and I haven’t read the revision yet us started have done very far one of the criticisms I made frequently was that you didn’t say what goods were produced did you had a tendency to just say all that he did it because the guy told to or it was his belief then sometimes you think you getting an argument when you say it was a strong belief what is whole life is about something like that but what good is didn’t produce if Socrates went around questioning people could he say that the Athenian should give them a pension you get a pension if you work out your life for the community you know I’m done something the community wants done productive of some good they are wanted to maybe you’re a teacher or maybe your sanitation worker cop something so what’s good to do and clearly Socrates and the the god as expressed through the Oracle thought that it was good because and God said that Socrates was the wisest of all and to be wise means and I’ll something about what’s good and Socrates when around doing all these things cause he thought it was good so you you need to ask yourself what’s the good did produces the simple answer on that one is he questions people and guests of this think so little more complicated as well when you think sometimes I figure out that what you thought you knew you didn’t know or maybe you even get to know something you didn’t know before so then you have to ask you to content with that when you’re thinking about the things you have to ask yourself what would his knowledge I know this is often the case that we feel that things would rather not know if knowledge is a good you want to have some ideas about what’s good about I so you can ask yourself world how I want to eat healthy foods would knowledge be any help of course talk to you can give some examples of how thinking and questioning and seeking knowledge could be beneficial in human life saving is true in the cradle Socrates says he should never disobey God’s lot of you tell me are you being this what if he does obey the law this to become contrary to his whole life well that’s true so go to his life mail sometimes you can on her death bed it’s good to change your life it’s been bad to repent but what what’s good about the law what do they produce the argument that Socrates presents to us in the Kreitel is that the laws are responsible for every you’ve good it doesn’t mean that the laws we live under can’t be improved in aren’t maybe in some respects terrible but the fact is that the only way that human beings accomplish anything is true cooperation this is Socrates argument and that the laws are rules for living together to produce the various goods that we want Family babies food and clothing education things the laws mention to Socrates that’s what we do for you so here we have to ask ourselves what RV Utilities that is the benefits that Mill is ascribing to Liberty this whole book is an attempt to give liberty some good press he thinks that it is under value and what is the remedy he proposes is his words of persuasion to persuade those who exercise tearing that what they are doing is detrimental to oral the goods that they claim to be promoted okay so that’s why I wanted to jump to this paragraph rather late in the first chapter and then go back and ask ourselves what are the what’s the problem with good and bad with respect to liberty now first of all is Mill saying that liberty is totally good never bad everything bad you might want to identify it was probably somebody exercising for liberty Think somebody picks up a rifle and shoot a bunch of people exercising his liberty but killing them so we recognize that liberty isn’t always good let’s go to the other side the opposite of liberty the word Mill uses his authority Authority is anything that supposed to liberty to make sense is that just think Liberty and doing what you want to do an authority is doing with some authority tell you that’s how they’re opposed but when you do what an authority tells you to do you are so to speak adjusting yourself to the wishes of that authority and another word we use for that is conforme you are conforme to the authority now just as Liberty we didn’t talk about with the liberty but this is liberty is sometimes good and sometimes bad so is conformity when there is a good rule that we should all follow conformity is a good day so if there’s a rule that says don’t drive when you’ve been drinking because that makes a normally dangerous machine the automobile much much more dangerous because of the lack of judgment we have when we’ve been drinking that’s a good rule most people would agree anyway that people should conform to when when people conform to these good sensible rules we don’t call them conformist another with people without a any sense of their own Liberty conformity can be good and liberty can be good and they both can be bad so Mills says the problem is to find the lawn where is the line that divides Liberty and conformity properly reasonably so that everything on one side online is an should be free and up up to people what what to do to their own liberty and on the other side of the line not free but we need authority to determine what we should all do now he he says that this issue between liberty and authority is as old as human beans and all old pop and it’s taking a new form so he approaches the problem buy going through and a very broad and sketchy way to kind of history of this struggle between liberty and authority that’s what you’re Lord of the log many of you’ve handed to be the beginning of class which reminds me Mr. Romaine I have a lot that you gave me but somehow it got into one of the other piles so I got in my office if you want to come back to the airport following that history is the key to understanding this whole book which is why he starts that way first of all are you in the lawn I speak of three stages before government with government and. The majority how does a lot to figure out they are but you know the lawn the log you just you know looking for something to text and getting ready for class gradually we figure it out together what mill doesn’t speak up before government in fact when he talked about this in paragraph on page 21 paragraph see He uses the analogy of Bob vultures birds of prey any says the government is like a huge vulture are you dominating predatory but he tells us that people creative this Predator and they didn’t sell because every body particularly saw him more than others that basically everybody was a small predator and they created this huge credit tour in order to control the little right now does that make sense to you now what I want you to see is that that refers to something situation before this huge front door was created before government when there’re a bunch a little credit now maybe not everybody was a predator you might there are wolves and there are she right so what are the water will soon to sheet they need them guess so if you want to protect the sheep from the walls yes that’s him be more powerful then a wolf with Sheldon human human beings that generally means a human being rifle right so this just living on our own as individuals and doing whatever we want or more likely whatever we can due to might be using you for a snack alright it already did I tell you about life in the as isolated for a nasty British and short that’s why they have buried under some snow or whatever we build a fire Jo baby stole from Zeus not so easy to picture the arts of government another words the ability to live together and cooperate of course we don’t do that perfectly either no into well so this is this the same kind of insight we have your milk however the government is depicted as a great culture it he’s the smaller vultures down but it’s still a credit tour so if in need of government we have turn to God and said I know you got them angels up there let maybe they’re not all That busy can you send some angels down to us that that might work right with angels presumably wouldn’t do anything bad they would tell us what to do and it might work out fine I didn’t But what we have to do and We invented government was make it out of people night and so the same people who were acting for their own advantage before there was government some of those same people Will continue to do the same thing when there is even if they do the job keeping people from harming each other they will probably also take advantage of the situation in order to get rich and whatever we know it was only two common in fact in human history so what I want to stop here and asked this question Mill said he wants to find the correct the reason I’m alive to draw so that on the one side is liberty weather should be Liberty no interference the other side is authority when it should be authority no liberty you want to find a crack if he starts off by telling us describing the struggle between liberty and authority in the way I just told you that should be his way of finding another words you are to be able to find the answer to the question which in fact he states explicitly in paragraph 9 just before the paragraph two paragraphs before the one I referred you should be able find it in the story anticipate conclusion you is out of do it why did people create this Great culture why do people invent government what was their purpose order is one of those words we like to use its play clearly in all we do is get a kind of order but what what were they what didn’t a light David about the old way in to say it was disorderly as you know you can even have order in extermination camp site I know that you had in mind what I like about violence yeah all right it was the best so what if any when you need when is the threat of violence protection that I’m sure that’s part of what you had in mind these when you’ve that order what you see you tonightEat explicitly says the legitimate reason for restraining liberty is to is to protect people and if one person and exercises liberties hurting another one that liberty should not and the other side story is if the person in exercise liberty not hurting anyone else that it’s nobody else’s business to meet so if you look in the second stage when the government is going beyond a legitimate job of protecting people from each other but doing things for its own benefits and people decide that they want to change the government the first to try to limit its powers of all that’s not successful successful to some degree but not sufficiently so eventually people come up with another ingenious idea by the way I want you to notice here I said before that his whole argument is going to be about the benefits of liberty the benefit of inventing government is protection Life becomes much more secure plus people begin to be able to cooperate we begin to produce into be late well and song that is a benefit of liberty because some people came up with this idea exercising their liberty and liberty for and discussion with each other and then they they created it brilliant thing government right now they come up with another idea because government is definitely a mixed blessing and went and is at its worst it’s probably worst just being out there that in the forest so what’s the idea to come up what no that was the old way that was that was the one that make of them and attractive this it leads to the majority but that’s not the idea of a, it is not about the majority right let’s go back over this again little bit in the we’re talking about his struggle between liberty and authority the need for authority arises because today Is the damage to each other so the damage the bad stuff comes about by people exercising Liberty an imposing to the best of their ability imposing their liberty that is there will on somebody else so the problems are always problems are people imposing their will and somebody else therefore when people recognize that government is a continuation of that aspect of it that is it some people work rulers imposing their will another people who are ruled they come up with a new idea where there is no imposition of the will of some others what is that what we call that where is it where is this imposition of wheel of one on another with the idea of that thinking about Think about it terms of the words I use the problem comes from the clash of wheels one will getting imposed on another so if the will one ruling the other so if you don’t have that what are you have what will the will rule it doesn’t rule the other what is it roll if you don’t rule the other you’ll yourself the opposite of the imposition of rule on the rule it Is called self rule at least I our self government death or the degree which is also English is autonomy favorite not exactly what autonomy means I’ll tell meeting self and almost meeting wall when when individuals or groups want to be autonomous that means I want to rule themselves and not he will by somebody now the idea of self rule sounds great because it illuminates this distinction between this one telling one and that one telling this one it’s all one thing ruling itself so there can be with where there is truly self-will there can’t be any tearing any harmful imposition because it the the self rules to its own advantage to the best visibility at least there’s no opposition interests however the idea that people could do that if you take it literally means every body in a in a group but it’s a nation or a family or any other group every body will have the same will otherwise it will all agree there will be unanimity literally mean one mine I’ll be in one line this is an ongoing ideal human life the ideal that week we will all be in harmony once we all share the truth and of course human history has this idea of many times in many forms and it inevitably takes along with good forms it takes the bad form of murdering people because they don’t have the truth and they’re not an agreement so that’s the problem that Bill is talking about if we have a group and we all have the same idea we all agree then we can rule as one but if we disagree and we are all rolling is no longer a government to separate from us we’re all rolling how do we decide what to do if we disagree Candy if you got what are the problems of marriage is that it’s only two people if the basic marriage unit was three people will be a lot easier to handle but Don’t don’t don’t but I think it’s okay because what are you doing disagree that’s something to avoid a fight what you can have an argument but sometimes sometimes you disgusted for hours and days and years and you still don’t agree now what but what y’all it what if you can’t reach a compromise what do you do now you’re forgetting that something very basic why do you vote I hope you do yeah but you get the candidate to choose maybe sometime yeah so what wins the ball what rules in a democracy the majority you see what the problem is there would be no imposition of a wheel on another real if everybody agreed to all of one will but when they disagree then if you’re going to live as a community and have to make decisions you have to take action then we fall back on majority rule if we can all agree it’s certainly better to do it more want and what you were on other things being equal nasty so That’s the problem the majority rules now what’s what’s the legitimate limit to the authority of the majority according to mail you have to do is apply what we already figured out before what is the legitimate reasonable limits of the rule of the majority over others for what purpose what was the purpose we decided as a legitimate purpose of government answer you gave for protection protection I said to you if you want to figure out how mail gets his principle that he thinks is a reasonable line between liberty and authority look at Howdy derives it by this sequence that we’re discussing at each stage the problem is the imposition of the will some on others right they’re just sometimes when we need the protection of the law in a given force and it should be available to us most times so the majority rule is in a way not as good as everybody agreed that everybody agree four in human history is the kind of fairytale right we tell jokes about disagreement this so characteristic of human life often their essay jokes for example one of the ones that the Jews tell isn’t in a village in Russia or something like that there were two synagogues there was the one you worshiping and the one you wouldn’t be quite daddy indicating you the degree of the disagreement or when I heard from a very learned man who was the Hungarian he said to me one time Hungarian general three opinions so with all that disagreement what meal is saying his authority is necessary and good but it has to be limited to what say again protection write words if somebody is doing something that is harmful to somebody else than is reasonable for authority to step in them if they can punish them whenever but if What he is doing is not harmful to anybody else but the majority disapproves of it and they try stocking from doing it anyway what is milk all that what was it winning what what is it called it when the government doesn’t for a cell phone call to Jeremy Wright when they just decide that people do whatever they wanted to do which is usually aimed at their own advantage right now so the majority dozens of soap couple things you want to consider the majority first walked to the great irony here is that a new form of tyranny arises out of the attempt of people to remove tyranny and to have the people rule rather than some dictate or whatever part of the problem with the majority of my government when you’re when there’s law that you’re anything you want to do something contrary to the law you try To do is to get away with it is to avoid being seen by a cop right so let’s take an important lot like no jaywalking you might think it’s pretty okay for you across the middle of the street but if the Casa been writing tickets her that the new you look around sure dress-up playing close account but when the tyranny comes from the majority is not so easy because they’re all over